IRC SP 19-2001
MANUAL FOR SURVEY, INVESTIGATION AND PREPARATION OF ROAD PROJECTS
INDIAN ROADS CONGRESS Jamnagar House, Shahjahan Road, New Delhi-HOOOI
Price Rs.320/(plus packing and postage)
First Published First Revision
December, 1997 December, 2001
(Rights of Publication and of Translation are Reserved)
Printed at Nutan Printers, New Delhi (1000 copies)
2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Personnel of the Highways Specifications & Standards Committee Introduction Scope Stages in Project Preparation Guiding Principles of Route Selection and Alignment Improvement Survey of Socio-Economic Profile Traffic Surveys and Analysis
2 3 5 7 7
Classified Traffic Volume Counts
Origin-Destination (O-D) Surveys
Speed and Delay Studies
Traffic Surveys for Design of Road Junctions
Traffic Surveys for Replacing Railway Level Crossings with Over-Bridges/Subw~ys
Axle Load Survey
Reconnaissance Survey 7.1. Purpose .
Study of Survey-Sheets, Maps etc.
23 23 24
Preliminary Survey 8.1. Purpose
Environmental Impact Study and Resettlement and Rehabilitation Action Plan 9.1. General
Environmental Management Action Plan
Resettlement and Rehabilitation Action Plan (RAP)
Feasibility Report Selection of Optimum Alignment in the Design Office Final Location Survey 12.1. Purpose
28 30 31 31
12.2. Staking Final Centre Line
12.3. Bench Marks 12.5. Proper Protection of Points of Reference
32 32 33
Soil and Material Surveys 13.1. General
13.2. Study of Available Information
12.4. Longitudinal Sections and Cross-Sections
Page (i) & (ii)
IRC:SP: 19-200 1 Page
13.3. Soil Investigations for Low Embankments
13.4. Special Investigations for High Embankments
13.5. Soil Investigations for Cut Sections
13 .6. Special Investigations in Landslide Prone Areas
13.7. Detailed Investigation for Flexible Pavement Design
13.8. Detailed Investigation for Rigid Pavement Design
13.9. Naturally Occurring Aggregates for Pavement Courses
13 .to. Manufactured Aggregates (Brick Aggregate)
13.11. Manufactured Items
13.12. Water for Construction Purposes
Road Inventory and Condition Survey Drainage Studies 15.1 General
43 46 46
15.2. High Flood Level
15.4. Ponded Water Level
15.5. Special Investigations for Cut-Sections
15.6. Surface Run-off
Cross-Drainage Structures Preparation and Presentation of Project Documents (Detailed Project Report) 17.1. Gem:ral
48 50 50
17.2. Project Report
17.5. Check List
Guiding Principles Covering Route Selection and Highway Location
Traffic Growth Rate Estimation
Points on which Data may be Collected during Ground Reconnaissance
Check List of Major Operations Involved in the Survey and Investigation for a Road Project
Recommended Mitigating Measures and Suggested Grading for Initial Environmental Examination
Check List for a Highway Feasibility Report
Typical Road Inventory Format
Introduction of Computer Based Road Data Bank
Check List ofItems for a Highway Project Report
Appendix-to List of Laboratory Tests to be Conducted for Highway Embankments
Appendix-II Salient Features of the Ministry of Environment and Forest (MOEF) Guidelines for Highway Projects
IRC:SP: 19-200 I
PERSONNEL OF THE HIGHWAYS SPECIFICATIONS & STANDARDS COMMITTEE (As on 25-10-1998) I.
Prafulla Kumar (Convenor)
Director General (Road Dev.) & Add!. Secretary, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways,Transport Bhawan, New Delhi-I 10001
c.c. Bhattacharya (Member -Secretary)
Chief Engineer (R), S&R, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhawan, New Delhi-I 10001
Chief Engineer (Planning), Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhawan, New Delhi-I 10001
Nirmal Jit Singh
Chief Engineer (T&T), Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhawan, New Delhi-I 10001
Prof. Gopal Ranjan
Director, College of Engineering, Roorkee, 27, 7th KM, Roorkee-Hardwar Road, Vardhman Puram, Hardwar-247667
Prof. P.K. Sikdar
Director, Central Road Research Institute, P.O. CRRI, Delhi-Mathura Road, New Delhi-I 10020
Dr. L.R. Kadiyali
Chief Consultant, Dr. L.R. Kadiyali & Associates, C-6/7, Safdarjung Development Area, New Delhi-I 10016
Principal Secretary to the Govt.ofGujarat, R&B Departfuent, Sardar Bhavan, Block No.14, Sachivalaya, Gandhinagar-3820 I 0
Member, Maharashtra Public Service Commission, 3rd Floor, Bank ofIndia Building, M.G. Road, Mumbai-400001
Chief Engineer, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhavan, New Delhi-II 000 I
Secretary (Roads), P.W.D., Mantralaya, Mumbai-400032
Ram Babu Gupta
Chief Engineer (Mech.), Rajasthan Public Works Department, B&R, Jaipur
Add!. Director General, Directorate General Border Roads, Seema Sadak Bhawan, Ring Road, Delhi Cantt., New Delhi-II 001 0
Prof. A.K. Sharma
Head of Deptt. of Transport Planning, School of Planning & Architecture, 4, Block B, I.P. Estate, New Delhi-ll0002
Chief Engineer (B) S&R, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, Transport Bhawan, New Delhi-I 10001
V. Murahari Reddy
Engineer-in-Chief, R&B Department, A&E, Errun Manzil, Hyderabad-500082
Secretary to the Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, M.P. Public Works Department, Mantralaya, Bhopal-462004
Engineer-in-Chief, Public Works Department, U.S.Club, Shimla-I71 00 I
Engineer-in-Chief & Ex-Officio Secy., Public Works Deptt., G Block, (Ilnd Floor) 'Writers' Buldg, Kolkata-70000I
Member, National Highway Authority ofIndia, 1, Eastern Avenue, Maharani Bagh, New Delhi-II 0065
Engineer-in-Chief, PWD, Govt. of Delhi, K.G.Marg:. New Delhi-I 10001 (i)
IRCSP: 19-2001 22.
Prof. G.V. Rao
Dcptt. of Civil Engg., LIT. Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-I 10016
Dr. O.P. Bhatia
Dy. Director & Head, Civil Engg. Department, G.S.I.T.S, H-55, M.I.G., Indoor-452008
DG(RD), MOST (Retd.), E-44, Greater Kailash (Part I) Enclave, New Delhi-I 10048
DG(RD) MOST (Retd.), S-108, Panchshila Park, New Delhi-I 10017
Prof. c.G. Swaminathan "Badri", 6, Thiruvangadam Street, R.A., Puram, Chennai-600025
Prof. C.E.G. Justo
Emeritus Fellow, 334, 25th Cross, 14th Main, Banashankari, 2nd Stage, Bangalore-560070
Prof. N. Ranganathan
Head of Deptt. of Transportation PIg., SPA «Retd.) Consultant, 458/C/SFS, Shaikh Sarai-I, New Delhi-I 10017
Engineer-in-Chief (Retd.), House No. 40, Sector-I 6, Panchkula-134109
Dr. A.K. Hhatnagar
Director, Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Scope Complex, Code-II, Lodhi Road, New Delhi-I 10003
The Director General (Works)
Engine·er-in-Chief's Branch, Army Hqrs., Kashmir House, DHQ, P.O., New Delhi-IIOOII
The Secretary to the Govt. of Karnataka
P.W.D., Room No.610, 6th Floor, Multistoried Building, Dr. Ambedkar Road, Bangalore-56000 1
Haryana Public Works Deptt., B&R, Sector-I9-B, Chandigarh-I600I9
The Chief Engineer (National Highways)
U.P. Public Works Department, Lucknow-22600I
The Director & Head
Civil Engg. Department, Bureau of Indian Standards, Manak Bhawan, 9, Bahadur Shah Zafar Marg, New Delhi-II 0002
The Chief Engineer
National Highways, Assam Public Works Department, Dispur, Guwahati-78 I 006
Highways Research Station, 76, Sardar Patel Road, Chennai-600025
Ex-Officio Members 38.
The President Indian Roads Congress
K.B. Rajoria Engineer-in-Chief, Delhi PWD, New Delhi
The Director General (Road Development)
Prafulla Kumar Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi-I 10001
The Secretary Indian Roads Congress
S.c. Sharma Chief Engineer, Ministry of Road Transport & Highways, New Delhi-I 10001
Corresponding Members J.
House No.642, IIT Campus, P.O. liT, Kanpur
Dr. V.M. Sharma
Consultant, AIMIL Ltd., A-8, Mohan Cooperative Industrial Estate, Naimex House, Mathura Road, New Delhi-II 0044
Dr. S. Raghava Chari
Emeritus Professor, JNTU, H.No.I6-11-20/5/5, Dilsukhanagar-3, Hyderabad-500036
(Past President, IRC), A-47/J344, Adarshnagar, Worli, Mumbai-400025
1.1. Preparation ofhighway projects involves a chain of activities, such as, field surveys and investigations, selection ofalignment, canying out various designs, preparation ofdrawings and estimates, etc. To be compatible with technical requirements, consistent with economy, it is essential that every project should be prepared after thorough investigations and collecting all relevant information and evaluating all possible alternatives. 1.2. The extent and quality of investigations have a strong influence on seleCtion ofthe most cost-effective design, estimation ofquantities cost and execution ofthe job itself. As such, accuracy and completeness of surveys deserves very special attention in project preparation. The objective can be achieved bycanying out the project preparation work either departmentally or with the help ofconsultants. In any case, it should be ensured that experts having the required knowledge are deployed on the work. Use ofmodern instruments and survey techniques ensure high degree of accuracy and can speed up the work. Quality Assurance Plan is required to be drawn before the start of field investigations.
Adequate funds should be earmarked for the work of survey, investigation and project preparation. Estimation ofrealistic fund and time requirement needed for proj ect preparation will go a long way in making the project preparation a success. It will be found that in the long run, such investment pays more than for itself in the form of well prepared and cost effective projects, orderly schedule ofwork and timely completion. 1.4. Systematic presentation ofproject details is no less important. The project document is the very basis oftechnical, administrative and financial sanction ofa project. It is also crucial for accurate execution of work in the field. The project should, therefore, be comprehensive enough for proper appreciation ofthe proposals as well as easy understanding ofthe details. This Manual lays down guidelines both for survey and investigations and presentations of the-project details. 1.5. The Indian Roads Congress first published this manual in 1977. Since then, considerable experience has been gained by the Highways Departments and Consultants in this field, making it necessary to revise the manual. The work was taken up by the Project Preparation, Project Contract and Management Committee ofthe Indian Roads Congress. Initial revised draft ofthe manual was prepared by Dr. L.R. Kadiyali. The Committee appointed aSub-committee consisting ofSarvashri Devendra Sharma as Chairman, A.K. Mukherjee, P .K. Datta, D.C. De to finalise the revised draft of the manual. The Sub-committee reviewed and modified the initial draft and the revised draft of manual was placed before the Committee in the meetings held on 12-1-1997,5-1-1998 and 22-4-1998. The Project Preparation, Project Contract and Management Committee (H-8) (personnel given below) approved the draft in its meeting held on 6th July 1998 . P.D.Wani The Engineer-in-Chief Haryana PWD, B&R (K.B. Lal Singal)
Members P.K.Datta Jaganando Ganguli
S.S. Rathore P.P.S. Sawheny
IRe:SP: 19-2001 N.K. Sinha Devendra Sharma RK. Sharma· Dr. M.S. Srinivasan Jerry Vargis Chief Engineer (NH), West Bengal
D.P. Gupta A~J. Jagtap Ramhlulla Kh;iingte Dr. H.C. Mehndiratta S.N. Mohanty K.B. Rajoria ~p.~fDGBR
Ex-Officio Members President, Indian Roads Congress (Maj. C.R Ramesh)
Hon. Treasurer, Indian Roads Congress (Prafulla Kumar)
Secretary, Indian Roads Congress (S.c. Sharma)
M.K. Aggarwal D.K. Kanhere
RK. Jha Managing Director Meghalaya Govt. Cons tn. Corpn. Ltd.
The manual was approved by Highways Specifications and Standards Committee, Executive Committee and Council (held at Jaipur) of Indian Roads Congress in their meetings held on 25-10-1998, 16-7-99 and 6-8-99respectively. 2. SCOPE 2.1. The manual deals with rural sections ofNational Highways, State Highways and Major District Roads. It does not deal with Other District Roads and Village Roads, for which a reference may be made to the-"IRC:SP:20 Manual on Route Location, Design, Construction and Maintenance ofRural Roads". However, the provisions and guidelines in this manual are expected to be applicable to a large extent to Urban Roads, Expressways and BOT projects also I. But for these roads, some additional specific requirements may be there, than those dealt in this document. The manual deals with new construction as well as improvements to existing roads. Special aspects of each have been highlighted wherever necessary. The selection of alignment ofany road is generally not governed by the siting ofcross-drainage structures except in case of major bridges oflengt.h more than 60 m. IRC:SP:54 "Project Preparation Manual for Bridges" lays down guidelines covering the various aspects which are to be detailed in the preparation of a bridge project of length more than 6 m. The survey and investigation for small cross-drainage works with length less than 6 m is covered in IRC:SP: 13. For hill roads and road tunnels, reference may also be made to IRC:52 "Recommendations about the Alignment, Survey and Geometric Design ofHill Roads" and IRC:SP:48 "Hill Road Manual". 2.2. In order to ensure that the surveys and investigations, Feasibility Report anq Detailed Project Report are complete and no essential detail is missed, a checklist for each ofthose activities is presented in the Appendices - 4~ 5 & 6. 2.3. It should be understood clearly that the extent of operations involved in surveys and investigations including the detailing ofthe individual aspects, would depend very much on the size and scope of each project and the class of the highway. Depending on needs ofthe situation, one or more phases of investigations might be curtailed, telescoped or made more extensive than prescribed in the manual. 2
IRCSP:l 9-200 1
2.4. The order in which various surveys are discussed in the manual should not be taken to mean that such work must strictly follow the same pattern or sequence. Some of the surveys could easily be initiated in advance and carried out simultaneously overlapping each other. For example; some results of soil and materials survey and study of cross-drainage structures would be needed as an essential input to the Feasibility Report. But more detailed Investigations on these aspects may be continued in the detailed engineering phase. It should be upto the Engineer-in-charge to exercise his discretion and adopt a flexible approach. The requirements ofthe funding agencies or the authority according administrati ve approval may also result in rescheduling the sequence of work and in redefining the extent of coverage of each work.
3. STAGES IN PROJECT PREPARATION 3.1.
Broadly, the stages involved in the preparation and sanction of project are : 1. Pre-feasibility study 2. Feasibility study/preliminary project report preparation 3. Detailed engineering and plan of construction 3
3.2. In some cases, specially for externally funded and BOT projects, it may be necessary to prepare a pre-feasibility report to enable a funding agency or private. financier to appreciate the broad features of the project, the levels of financial involvement and probable returns. This may be done on the basi~ of reconnaissance survey by collecting infonnation on the present status oftheroad, ~iency/ distress identification, development potential, environmental impact, traffic data (present and future), approximate estimation of cost and an economic analysis. The economic analysis may involve traffic allocation studies, assessment of resource generation potential, funding pattern and risk. Location ofto11 plaza sites may also need to be identifiel. 3.3. The Feasibility Study is intended to establish whether the proposal is acceptable in tenns of soundness of engineering design and expected benefits from the project for the investments involved. The Feasibility report enables the funding agency to accord approval to the project. This approval is commonly known as Administrative Approval (AA) in the Highway Departments/ Public Works Departments in the country. When international funding is involved, the Feasibility Study fonns a basis for an investment decision. 3.4. The Detailed Engineering covers detailed alignment surveys, soil and materials surveys, pavement design studies, drainage studies, environment management plan based on environment impact assessment studies, detailed drawings, estimates and implementation schedules and documents. On the basis of such work, Technical Approval and Financial Sanction (TA and FS) are accorded to the project, enabling it to be executed. For externally funded and BOT projects, the requirements at various stages are different and may ask for specific infonnations involving various degree of accuracy of survey and investigations. 3.5. The sequence ofsurvey operations and project preparation may thus, have to be structured to meet the specific needs ofthe project, its funding option and the requirements ofthe authority sponsoring it. 3.6.
Fig. 3.1. gives a flow chartofthe operations involved in highway project preparation.
The process ofland acquisition needs to be started immediately after finalising the alignment. 3
Reconnaissance and Traffic Estimation
1 lPreliminary Design
Approximate Cost Estimation
--..... FEASIBILITY . STUDY
Economic Profile I Survey
~ Traffic Analysis and Projection
ILimited Soil Survey I
Limited Drainage I Studies I Land Acguision Estimate
Detailed Topographical ~ Survey
Final Location Survey ~
Project Cost Estimation
Detailed Soil Survey
R& RAction Plan & I Envirol!ment S(!reening Fig. 3.1. Stages in Project Preparation
Detailed Pavement Design
Detailed Drainage , Studies
IFeasibility Report I Adiministrative Approval
DPR Design Report Drawings Estimation
1 Technical Approval and Einancial Sanction
Limited Pavement I Design Studies I
Preliminary Topo-I graphical Survey I
EnVIronment Management Action Plan
I Tendering Stage
Provisions ofthe appropriate Land Acquisition Act will govern the various steps to be followed in the process ofland acquisition. Depending on the quantum ofland acquisition, creation of separate land acquisition authority may also be sometimes necessary. Acquisition of Government land, Private Land, Forest Land and land falling under Costal Regulation Zone, etc. will attract different acts/regulations. The various steps in land acquisition, namely, appointment of exclusive completent authority, if required declaring intention of acquisition, issuing notices and giving hearing to the affected parties,joint measurements, final notices and acquisition ofthe land, etc. require considerable time and need to be closely monitored to acquire the land within the desired time limit. Temporary and permanent structures coming in the alignment, trees need to be cut, including those in the forest lands, need special attention for obtaining permission/valuation from the Competent Authority. Similarly, obtaining p~ission of the Ministry ofForest and Environment for the forest land and the land coming in the coastal regulation zone need to be processed in time. Identifications and acquisition ofland for borrow areas, quarries, etc. also need to be started in advance in case oflarge projects, such as, national highway project and expressway projects.
4. GUIDING PRINCIPLES OF ROUTE SELECTION AND ALIGNMENT IMPROVEMENT 4.1. The fundamental principle ofroute selection and alignment improvement is to achieve the least overall cost on transportation, having regard to the costs ofinitial construction ofthe highway facility, its maintenance, and road user cost, while at the same time, satisfying the social and environmental requirements. To achieve this objective, it will be necessary to make a detailed investigation before the location is finally decided. Factors that should be kept in view in the process are listed inAppendix-l and in Fig: 4.1. It should be understood that all these factors may not be applicable to each and every highway project and some ofthem, even if applicable, may not be feasible in many circumstances. For each case, the Engineer-in-charge has to exercise his own judgement to reach an optimum compromise solution in the light ofthe fundamental principle ofminimum transportation cost enunciated earlier. Where the project involves improvements to an existing road, every effort should be directed 4.2. towards removing the inherent deficiencies with respect to • •
Plan and profile Sight distance/visibility in horizontal as well as vertical plan
Carriageway, shoulder and roadway width
Road side drainage provisions~s well as area drainage considerations
Any disregard ofthese aspects may well lead to unnecessary expenditure, since at a later date the alignment may again have to be improved at considerable extra cost. It is, therefore, imperative that the final centre line ofthe road with respect to which, the improvements are designed and are to be carried out, is fixed with great care in the light of ultimate geometric requirements and economy. The other important point is removal of structural deficiencies with an eye on future needs with respect to pavement, culverts, road and area drainage requirement, etc. 4.3 Proper location and orientations of cross-drainage structures is an important factor in the selection ofthe road alignment. Their importance increases with their length and cost. In general for bridges 5
Topography Geology Geomorphology Soils "Materials FACTORS Climatic Condition Drainage Design Criteria Safety
Climate Traffic Soils Materials Topography Drainage Geomorphology
Traffic Topography Travel Time Safety
Land Value Land Use Replacement Costs Traffic Design Criteria Utilities Tax Base
DEVELOPMENT . SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE POTENTIAL
Agriculture Foresty Mineral Extractior Trade/Industry Tourism Personal/Mobility Political Strategy
Population Culture Land Use Tax Rate Land Value Institutions Transportation Historical Sites Utilities/Services Community Boundaries Traffic Employment Dynamic Change Tax Base
Fig.4.t. Factors Affecting Route Selection & Alignment Improvement
, RECREATIONALI CONSERVATION Land Use Vegetation Fish Life Scenic Areas Wildlite Drainage Topography Erodibility" Sedimentation Land Marks
Noise Air Water Spillage Thermal Chemical Waste
Scenic Areas View from Road View of Road Eye Sores Topography Vegetation Drainage
IRC:SP: 19-200 1
having length between 60 to 300 m, siting of the bridges as well as alignment ofthe approaches will have equal priority and should be well co-ordinated. For bridges oflength more than 300 m, siting for the bridges will be primary guiding factor in route selection. 4.4. Apart from engineering factors, environmental impact ofthe proposal should be fully kept in view in terms of such aspects as air pollution, damage to life systems, soil erosion, drainage pattern, landscaping, disruption oflocal communities. etc' .
5. SURVEY OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC PROFILE 5.1. The economy ofa region and its transport infrastructure are closely inter-related. The economic justification for a highway project often depends upon the economic activities in the region and potential for their further growth. The growth oftraffic on the roads is likely to be closely governed by the inter-relationship between transport demand and certain selected economic indicators. A survey ofthe economic profile is, thus, an important component in project preparation. 5.2. The economic profile data are generally collected at two levels, viz., (a) Region or State and (b) Project Influence Area: The regional economic profile gives an idea of how the economic growth has taken place in relation to growth oftraffic, thus, giving a basis· for estimation of future growth oftraffic for various scenarios of economic growth. The Project Influence Area is the zone in the near vicinity of the highway project such that investments in the project serve as a catalytic agent towards the speedy development of the area. Such a development 'generates additional traffic other than the normal. 5.3. The economic profile survey ofthe region should enable the presentation of an overview of the region' siS tate , s economy, popUlation and transport system over the past years and projected to future years. The data should be collected for the past about ten years. This item is also covered in Appendix-6.
5.4. The socio-economic status of the Road Influence Area should provide a descriptive and quantified profile from available data on popUlation, agricultural production, area under crops, annual industrial and mining production by type of establishment, tourism potential and the inputs and outputs moving by road. fuformation un major planned development projects (type ofestablishment and expected annual production) should be collected. 5.5. The historical trend data should be analysed statistically to determine the growth trends and elasticity oftraffic with respect to GDP, population, industrial production and agricultural output. The planned rates of growth ofthose selected indicators in the future should be obtained.
6. TRAFFIC SURVEYS AND ANALYSIS 6.1.
Information about traffic is indispensable for any highway project since it would form the basis for the design ofthe pavement, fixing the number of traffic lanes, design of intersections and economic appraisal ofthe project, etc. Traffic surveys required to be conducted in connection with the preparation of road project are as under: (a) Classified Traffic Volume Counts (b) Origin-Destination Surveys
* For assessing environmental impact of highway projects, a reference may be made to IRC publication "Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway Projects", IRC: 104-1988. 7
IRCSP: 19-2001 (c) Speed and delay studies (d) Traffic Surveys for the Design of Road Junction (e) Traffic Surveys for Replacing Railway Level Crossings with Over Bridges/Subways (f)
Axle Load Surveys
(g) Accident Records
These are discussed below: 6.2.
Classified Traffic Volume Counts
Count oftraffic is the basic traffic study required in connection with many types ofhighway proj ects. A system oftraffic census is in vogue in the country under which 7 day traffic counts are taken once or twice a year. The data from thesecanbe indiciously made use of, ifthe'census points fall on the proposed highway project. Time permitting, it is always desirable to under take fresh traffic surveys. Guidance may be taken from IRC:9 "Traffic Census on Non-Urban Roads." The count stations should be selected such that the results represent the traffic flow iIi homogeneous sections of the highway. A seven day count will then give the Average Daily Traffic (ADT). This value may be converted to Annual Average Daily Traffic (AADT) applying seasonal considerations and using conversion factors from any continuous traffic count in the region. When traffic census data from existing count stations are compiled, it may be found useful to collect past data (preferably about 10 years) so as to establish meaningful past growth trends for each vehicle class. A typical proforma 1 given in this Chapter may be used. 6.3.
Origin-Destination (0-0) Surveys
6.3.1. When a new road is being planned, or extensive improvements are to be carried out to an existing road, or a bypass is under consideration, the amount of traffic likely to use it cannot be ascertained from a simple census and it may become necessary to collect information about the origin and destination oftraffic passing through the area in which the road is situated. The origin and destination data should be comprehensive enough to cover all roads likely to be affected by the proposed scheme. The points at which the data is collected should be carefully chosen on the .road network such that it should be possible to derive the volume oftraffic likely to use the facility under consideration. 6.3.2. The survey should normally be conducted for three consecutive days, on sample basis if possible during a representati've week in the year and must encompass the weekly market day and one working day. For exceptional cases, in heavy density corridors and where the daily variation in the traffic is not much, at least one day's survey may be conducted on a normal working day. Care shall betaken during interpretation ofthe data keeping in mind the seasonal variation of traffic. 6.3.3. There are several methods available for conducting an 0-D survey. Information on them is contained in IRC: 102 ''Traffic Studies for Planning Bypasses Around Towns". Generally, the "Roadside Interview Method" is well-suited for roads in rural areas and can be conveniently adopted. This consists basicaIly of interviewing drivers of vehicles at suitably located points with reference to the type of road scheme in consideration. At these stations, the number as well as the type of all vehicle passing the station is recorded. However, only a percentage of the drivers at random need to be stopped and interviewed for origin, destination and other travel particulars, like, commodity carried. The sampling should be systematic. Generally, 15 to 20 per cent ofthe vehicles may be covered in the peak periods and 25 to 30 per cent in the nonnal periods. 8
6.3.4. The sample should be upscaled to ADT and preferably hourly based classified vehicle type. The location oforigin and destination zones will be detennined in relation to each individual station and the possibility oftraffic diversion to the project road from other road routes including bypasses. In principle, the zoning should bisect areas where competing roads pass and the zonal configuration shall be adequate on either side ofthe O-D station; thereafter, districts will serve as zones within the State. Zoning outside the State will relate to individual or groups of States in accordance with the distance from the 0D station. For coding purposes, code lists or code maps (to be shown to motorists) will be prepared giving zone number and towns within that zone. The updated (ADT) numbers shall then be presented by trip matrix. Information on weight for trucks should, following up scaling to ADT, be s~ed up by commodity type and the results tabulated, giving total weight and average weight per truck for the various commodity types. Sample sizes for each vehicle type should also be indicated. A sample ofZo,p.a1 Division is indicated in Fig. l. Fo110wing processing ofthe O-D results, traffic is assigned from the trip matrix's elements to the project road' s homogeneous sections, provided the route including the project roadin its improved condition is the most desirable of the alternative routes available in terms ofleast vehicles operating costs. 6.4. Speed and Delay Studies Highway improvements result in speeding up traffic and reducing" congestion. Speed and delay studies on the existing facility provide the basis for estimating the causative problems and benefits ofthe improved facility. For this purpose typical proformae 2(a) and (b) given in this chapter may be used. The study is conveniently conducted by the "Moving Observer" method. By this method a test vehicle is run along with the traffic stream, at approximately the perceptible average speed of the traffic stream. A separate run is needed for each direCtion. The average of around six runs ensures accuracy ofresults. By noting down the travel time, including actual running time and stopped delays, the vehicles counted in the opposite direction and those overtaken/overtaking, it is possible to calculate the volume, speed and delay. For further information, IRe: 102 "Traffic Studies for Planning Bypas.ses Round Towns" may be consulted. Proformae 3(a) to (d) given in this Chapter may be found useful for this survey. 6.5. Traffic Surveys for the Design of Road Junctions 6.5.1. Road junction design requires information on directional movement oftraffic in the peak hour. For this purpose, it would be sufficient to have counts for 2 hours each in the morning and evening peak periods unless there exist extended peak hours. 6.5.2. For sUnple 'T' or 4-way junction, the survey could be conducted by stationing enumerators on each arm ofthe junction to note the number of vehicles entering through the arm and the direction of their exit. At multi-Ieggedjunction or rotaries, quick judgement about the exit direction or vehicles may not be possible. In such cases, a licence plate survey may have to be conducted. This consists ofnoting the registration numbers (generally only the last three digits) of a sample ofvehicles entering the intersection. Simultaneously, on each exit, the registration numbers ofvehicles leaving the junction are noted. The two sets of numbers are then matched in the office to determine the directional movements. For recording traffic movement at a junction Table 3.1. Interesection Design Data given in IRC:SP:41 Guidelines for the design of At-Grade interesections in rural and urban areas needs to be used. 6.5.3. Usually, it is not necessary to conduct traffic surveys onjunctions where traffic on the minor cross road is less than about 100 vehicles per day. 6.5.4. Special pedestrian survey needs to be conducted when the alignment passes by such 9
locations, (e.g., school, well, etc. on one side of alignment and the village on the other side), to decide the provision of appropriate crossing, such as, sUbway. 6.6.
Traffic Surveys for Replacing Railway Level Crossings with Over Bridges/Subways
6.6.1. Present criteria of replacing railway level crossings with over bridges/underpasses are based on the product of gate closures and fast traffic per day. For this purpose, counts should be taken in a week spread over three consecutive days and 24 hours each day if such information is not already available. The number and duration of gate closures should be ascertained from the Railway Authorities and also counted at site by conducting a 24 hours survey. 6.6.2. Information should also be obtained on the angle of crossing of the roadway and the railway. In case the road alignment has curves near the railway crossing, to make it a perpendicular crossing, an index plan including these curves and the straight alignment beyond, should also be included to study the feasibility of improving the road alignment as part ofthe project for replacing the level crossing. 6.7.
Axle Load Survey
Axle load survey is needed to generate data for pavement design. Portable weigh bridges are very useful for this purpose. This survey shall be carried out along with classified volume count survey. Number of days of survey will depend on project location, the type of project and the intensity and expected variation in traffic. This survey duration may vary between 24 hours and 3 days, but should be carried out at least for one day at the traffic count stations on a random basis for commercial vehicles. Buses may be omitted as their weight can be easily calculated and they do not result in excessive overloads. The period of conducting the survey should also be judiciously selected keeping in view the movement of commodity/destination oriented dedicated type of commercial vehicles. While finalising the design Equivalent Standard Axle load, the following should be considered. (i)
Past axle load spectrum in the region as well as on the road to the extent available
Annual variation in commercial vehicles
Optimistic and pessimistic considerations offuture generation of traffic
Generation of changing VDF factor during the project period
A typical profoffila 4 given in this chapter may be found useful for this survey. 6.8.
If accident records are maintained in a methodical manner, they form a good basis for d~signing the improvements at accident-prone locations on existing roads. Such records, ifavailable, should invariably be consulted before deciding the improvement measures. 6.9.
6.9.1. Traffic counts and O-D surveys would provide information about present traffic on the road (in the case of existing roads), or the possible diverted traffic (in the case ofnew construction, such as, bypasses). For design purpose, however, it is necessary that classified traffic should be predicted for the future horizon year for which the facility is to be designed. 10
6.9.2. Period of projection depends on the type ofthe project, importance ofthe road, availability of fmances and other related factors. For major trunk routes, the desirable and minimum forecast periods are 20 and 10 years, (excluding the period of construction) though occasionally an even shorter period could be adopted depending on the policies of stage construction. In the case oflower category roads, the desirabTe period of projection is 10 years but it should not be less than 5 years. 6.9.3. Traffic growth should be assessed in the first instance on the basis of observed trend of traffic in the recent years and other economic indicators using the technique given in Ap'pendix-2. In this . connection the Guidelines for Traffic Prediction on Rural Highways, IRe: 108 may be referred to. If reliable information is not available, as a broad guide, a compound growth rate of7.5 per cent per annum could be adopted for this purpose. Because of the many uncertainties surrounding the possible shape of future population, incomes, production, goods generation, etc., it is necessary that estimates of traffic based purely on past rates of growth should be used with caution. 6.9.4. Forecast oftraffic based on past trends should also be modified for 'generated' traffic that may be using the highway facility after it is constructed. Generated traffic is quite distinct from the diverted traffic and represents journeys induced by reduced journey times and higher level of travel comfort which would not otherwise have been made. It is not necessary to allow for generated traffic on small schemes, but this may be c~lled for on comparatively larger projects. Estimation of generated traffic should be attempted after consulting standard literature on this subject.
7. RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
7.1.1. The main objective of reconnaissance survey is to examine the general character ofthe area for the purpose ofdetermining the most feasible route, or routes, for further more detailed investigations. Data collected should be adequate to examine the feasibility of all the different routes in question, as also to. furnish the Engineer-in-charge with approximate estimates of quantities and costs, so as to enable him to decide on the most s~itable alternative or alternatives. The survey should also help in determining any deviations necessary in the basic geometric standards to be adopted for the highway facility. 7.2.
7.2.1. The reconnaissance survey may be conducted in the following sequence
Study of topographical survey sheets, agricultural, soil, geological and meteorological maps, and aerial photographs, if available
Aerial reconnaissance (where necessary and feasible),
Ground reconnaissance (including another round of aerial reconnaissance for inaccessible and difficult stretches, where called for)
Study of Survey Sheets, Maps, etc.
7.3.1. Reconnaissance begins with a study of all the available maps. The types of ~seful map informations which are currently available in the country are as below: (a)
Survey ofindia (SOl) Maps. (i) The most useful maps are the topographical sheets available in the scale of 1:25,000, 1:50,000 and 1:250,000. 11
CLASSIFIED TRAFFIC VOLUME COUNT SURVEY
Road Name Section From Location Km. Direction Towards
Road No. Station No. Date & Day Hour
ADDL.INFORMA TION WEATHER
FAST MOVING VEHICLES TIME
Three Car/Jeep/ BUS Two Wheeler/ Van/Taxi LCV Wheeler Auto Mini Full Rickshaw
SLOW MOVING VEHICLES Agri. Tractor TRUCK MultiArtic/ With Without Cycle Cycle Animal Drawn Others Axle SemiArtic Trailer Trailer Rickshaw lBullock Cart Horse (PI. Specify) Drawn
Signature ofEnumerators: ___________________
Signature ofSupervisor: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
ORIGIN & DESTINATION (O-D) SURVEY (FREIGHT TRAFFIC) :
Location at Km
Name of Road
Registration No. ' Type of Vehicle & Axle Configuration Make & Model RLW/ULW Commodity Type
Quantity (Tonnes/Litre) Origin (Name of Place & District/State/Country) Destination (Name of Place & District/State/Country) Trip Length (Km)
Number of Trips Average Km DrivenlDay No. of Hours per Day No. of Working Days Per Month Adopted
Preference for Proposed
---- - -
Name & Signature of Emunerators: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Name & Signature of Supervisor
Location at Km
ORIGIN & DESTINATION (0-0) SURVEY (CAR/BUS) Name of Road
Registration No. Type of Vehicle No. of Passengers
Origin (Name of Place & District/State/Country) Destination (Name of Place & District/State/Country)
Trip Length (Km) Number of Trips VEHICLES tITILISATION
Average Km Driven/Day No. of Hours per Day No. of Working Days Per Month Adopted
Weather SI. No. ~ Particulars
Preference for Proposed Superior Road
Name & Signature of Emunerators: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Name & Signature of Supervisor _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Proforma 3 (a) Name ofProjeet SPEED AND DELAY STIJDY FORM NO.-l 'FORM FOR RECORDING TIlE TIME AT VARIOUS CONIROL POINTS N arne' of Road
From Km_________________ To Km_______________________
No. of Trip: _________
Date: __________________ Time_____________________ Sl. Distance No. Km. M.
First Stop Watch JoumeyTime Min. Sec.
Second Stop Watch Delay Time Min. Sec.
Cause of Delay
Name and Signature_ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Name and Signature._ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
of Supervisors ____________
SPEED AND DELAY STUDY FORM NO.-2
\0 I N
FORM FOR NO. OF VEHICLES OVERTAKING THE TEST VEHICLE NameofRoad: _________________________________ From Km
No. ofTrip:. ___________________________________ Date & Time._________________ Fast Moving Vehicles
Car/Jeep/Auto New Old
Passenger Vehicles Two-wheeler
Goods Vehicles Trucks 2-axle Multi-axle
Name and Signature of Enumerators: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
Name and Signature ofSupervisors._·_~_ _ _---''---_ _ __
Proforma 3(C) NameofPr~ect.
SPEED AND DELAY STUDY FORM NO.-3 FORM FOR NO. OF VEHICLES OVERTAKEN BY THE TEST VEHICLE NameofRoad: _____________________ From Km
From'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __
No. ofTrip: _________________________ Date & Time :_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ Fast Moving Vehicles
CarlJ eep/ Auto New Old
Passenger Vehicles Two-wheeler
Goods Vehicles Tempo/LCV
en :-9 Name and Signature of Enumerators:. _____________________________________________
Name and Signature of Supervisors
Proforma 3(d) ;;0 Name of
SPEED AND DELAY STUDY FORM NO.-4
FORM FOR NO. OF VEHICLES TRAVELLING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION NameofRoad: __________________________________ From Km
No. of Trip: ________,---_______________________________ Date & Time :___________________ Fast Moving Vehicles
Carl Jeep/ Auto New Old
Passenger Vehicles Two-wheeler
Goods Vehicles Trucks 2-axle Multi-axle
Name and Signature of Enumerators: ______________________________________________
Name and Signature ofSupervisors.______________________
Proforma 4 Name of
AXLE LOAD SURVEY Section: Location: Direction:
Date & Time Weather:
Axle Load (Tonnes) 3,d Axle 4th Axle
Recorded by :
Checked by :
Name and Signature of Enumerators :__~_______________________________________
Name and Signature of Supervisors
IR( ":SP: 19-2(XJl-
\ \ \
/ / S~ ot~
States HII, J & K
Project '. Rood \
\State A 8dry.
',,-~ ~ - ->-~ )
8 /~ ---
- - -- - - - \
States 6, C & 0 -....."
..--,..-_ . . . -
Fig. I. Zonal Dh"isiOIl (Sample)
State F 1.
IRC:SP:19-2001 Maps coverage on I :50,000 and I :250,000 scale are available for the whole of India but map coverage with the preferable scale of 1:25,000 is at present, available only for about 30 per cent of the country.
(ii) State maps on scale 1: 1,000,000. These are useful as index maps or to indicate an overview of the project location and are available for most of the States.
(iii) Plastic Relief Maps on scale 1: 15,000,000. One may be lucky to have these maps for certain regions. For very difficult areas highway location planning may be very much helped if these three dimensional maps delineating ridges, valleys, peaks, etc. with contour information are available. (b)
Apart from the above-mentioned SOl maps there are special purpose maps, like, Forest Survey of India, Vegetation Maps on scale I :25,000,000 showing incidence of orchards, reserve forests, clusters of social forestry areas, etc. which may be helpful in special cases in selection of alignment:
Also, maps prepared by National Bureau of Soil Survey and ~and Use Planning (NBSS & LUP) indicating information on Soil, Wasteland, etc. and Geological Survey ofIndia Maps (on scale 1:250,000 or smaller) with information on geology, geomorphology and changes in drainage, river courses, etc. are available for many areas. These maps may also be fruitfully used when considered necessary. 7.3 .2. After study ofthe topographical features on the maps, a number of alignments feasible in a general way are selected keeping in view the following points: (i)
The alignment should take into account all the control points and should be the shortest and most economical compatible with the requirements of gradiel)1'and curvature.
(ii) Shape ofthe aligiunents. (iii) A voidance, as far as possible, of marshy ground, steep terrain, unstable hill features and areas subject to severe climatic conditions, flooding and inundation. (iv) Need of connecting important villages and towns. (v) Bridging cross-drainage and drainage problems. (Guiding principle stated in para 4.2 shall be kept in view). (vi) Need to preserve environment and maintain ecological balance.
7.3.3. If photographs ofthe area are not available, but their need is considered imperative, aerial photography maybe arranged for further study in the interest of overall economy. T~e present status of Aerial Photography (AP) in India is that AP on scale 1:50,000 is available for the whole ofIndia Depending on their quality the negatives ofthese photographs, when necessary, can be enlarged easily by about five times without losing clarity and thus obtain AP enlargements on scale of 1:5,000 to 1:20,000.
These enlargements are quite adequate for the study of: (i)
Geology, geomorphology and groundwater prospecting and
Environmental factors, e.g., vegetation, soil condition, land use etc.
If stereoscopic techniques are applied, aerial photographs can yield quantitative data showing the 21
terrain in three dimension and if studied by a skilled photo-interpreter, can give significant soil and sub-soil information. 7.3.4. Photogrammetry support to highway engineering: Photogrammetry technology is also useful to the highway engineer in many ways. Large scale maps on scales at 1:2,000 to 1:25,000 can be very precisely produced through photogrammetric process. The contouring can also be produced, the common interval depending on the height ofthe camera. Very minute and precise measurements amounting to sub-metre accuracy can be obtained. In other words, profile (with height values) and cross-sections across highway centre-line can be extracted from optical model. 7.3.5. Satellite remote sensing: This technique is used with the help of satellites. At present, it gives a resolution ofthe order of 6 metres. Photographic products ofimagery are available from National Remote Sensing Agency, Hyderabad on scales ofl: 12,500, 1:25,000 and 1:50,000. Digital products are also available in floppy cartridge and tapes. The cartridge/tape can be digitally processed in the computer and the image on the monitor can be intetpreted with the possibility ofenhancement ofquality through manipulation ofimage processing software. Major advantages of satellite imagery is its repeatability as orbiting satellites visit the same spot on earth every few weeks. Thus, the latest information regarding the physical features (like, the extent of a town or urban area, etc.) can be obtained to update on available map. The information on natural resources namely, geology, geomorphology, land use, soil status (waterlogging, erosion, etc.), drainage, forest extent, etc. as available may be mo~t useful input for the planners ofhighway ~gnment. 7.3.6. Small format aerial photography (SFAP): In case oflarge projects with mapping as one ofthe main objectives conventional aerial photography in traditional format (23 cm x 23 cm) may also be useful. There are at least three known agencies in India for such aerial photography, namely, the National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad, Air Survey Company, Calcutta and the Indian Air Force. All aerial photography work requires clearance from the Ministry of Defence. The major advantages of SFAP are: Very large scale true colour photo enlargements can be done in scales upto 1: 1,000 to 1:2,000 (upto scales of 1: 10,000). Acquisition plans along side highways can be suitably made in scale of 1:4,000. Monitoring of urban areas, villages and environment along t.he corridor are possible at comparatively lower cost than ground surveys.
7 A.1. An aerial reconnaissance will provide a bird' s eyeview of the alignments under consideration along with the surrounding area. It will help to identifY factors which call for rejection or modification of any of the alignment. Final decision about the alignments to be studied in detail on the ground could be taken on the basis ofthe aerial reconnaissance.
7.5.1. The various altemative routes located as a result ofthe map study are further examined in the field by ground reconnaissance. As such, this part ofthe survey is an important link in the chain of activities leading to selection of the final route. 7.5.2. General reconnaissance consists of general examination of the ground walking or riding 22
along the probable route and collecting all available information necessary for evaluating the same. In the case of hill sections, it may some time be advantageous to start the reconnaissance from the obligatory point situated close to the top. If an area is inaccessible for the purposes of ground reconnaissance, recourse may be had to aerial reconnaissance to clear the doubts. 7.5.3. While carrying out ground reconnaissance, it is advisable to leave 'reference pegs to facilitate further survey operations. 7.5.4. Instruments generally used during ground reconnaissance include compass, Abney level! Alti-meter, Pedometer, Aneroid barometer, Clinometer, Ghat tracer, etc. Walkie-talkie sets, mobile phones and pagers are useful for communication, particularly in difficult terrain. Use ofthe instruments mentioned above to obtain ground slopes, maximum gradients, elevation of critical summits or stream crossings, and location of obligatory points, serve as a check on the maps being used. In difficult hilly and forest terrain assistance ofnew technology, like, Global Positioning System (GPS) or Differential GPS (DGPS) may also be taken where the magnitUde arid importance ofthe work justifY their provision. GPS is a comparatively new technology which utilises the satellites orbiting around the earth. A minimum of four satellites are needed to indicate the co-ordinates (X, Y, Z) on the ground at any time of day and night. The observations are made to an accuracy of nearly a few metres or so. For more precise work with accuracy of afew centimetres, two geo-receivers are used and this mode of using two GPS is known as differential GPS (DGPS). 7.5.5. Points on which data may be collected during ground reconnaissance are listed in Appendix-3.
Based on the information collected during the reconnaissance survey, a report should be prepared. The report should include all relevant informatIon collected during the survey, a plan to the scale of 1:50,000 or larger as available showing the alternative alignments studied alongwith their general profile and rough cost estimates. It should discuss the merits and demerits ofthe different alternatives to help the selection ofone or more alignments for detailed survey and investigation.
8. PRELIMINARY SURVEY 8.1.
8.1.1. The preliminary survey is a relatively largt;: scale instrument survey conducted for the purpose of collecting all the physical information which affects the proposed location of a new highway or improvements to an existing highway. In the case ofnew roads, it consists ofrunning an accurate traverse line along the route previously selected on the basis ofthe reconnaissance survey. In the case of existing roads where only improvements are proposed, the survey line is run along the existing alignment. During this phase of the survey, topographic features and other features, like, houses, monliments, places of worship, cremation or burial grounds, utility lines, existing road and railway lines, stream, river, canal crossings, cross-drainage structures, etc. are tied to the traverse line. Longitudinal-sections and crosssections, are taken and bench marks established. The data collected at this stage will form the basis for the determination ofthe final centre line ofthe road. For this reason, it is essential that every precaution should be taken to maintain a high degree of accuracy. 8.1.2. Besides the above, general information which may be useful in fixing design features within close limits is collected during this phase. The information may concern traffic, soil, construction materials, 23
drainage, etc. and may be collected from existing records as through intelligent inspection/simple measurements. Detailed investigations dealt with in section 10 through 16 are not envisaged at this stage. It may be found convenient to divide the road into homogeneous sections from traffic consideration and prepare a typical estimate for onekm stretch as representatjve of each homogeneous section. With the data collected, it should be possible to prepare rough cost estimates within reasonably close limits for obtaining administrative approval, if not already accorded and for planning further detailed survey and investigations. In particular, information may be collected regarding: (i)
The highest sub-soil and flood water levels, the variation between the maximuml and minimum, and the nature and extent of inundation, if any, gathered from local enquires or other records. These should be correlated to data about the maximum and minimum rainfall and its duration and spacing, etc. by appropriate hydrologica1.analysis.
The character of embankment foundations including the presence of any unstable strata likes micaceous schists, poor drainage or marshy areas; etc.· This is particularly necessary in areas having deep cuts to achieve the grade.
Any particular construction problem of the area, like, sub-terranean flow, high level water storage resulting in steep hydraulic gradient across the alignment canal crossings and their closure periods. Information regarding earlier failures in the area of slides or settlements of slopes, embankments and foundation, togethe~ with causes thereto may also be gathered from records and enquiry where feasible.
(iv) In cut sections, the nature of rock i.e., hard, soft etc. should be determined by trial pits or boreholes. This is essential to make realistic cost estimates.
8.2.1. The preliminary survey starts with running ofa traverse along the selected route, adhering as far as possible to the probable final centre line of the road. In difficult situations, a secondary traverse connected to the primary one at either end may also be run. In hilly ar:eas, a trace cut 1.0 to 1.2 m wide, ifrequired may be made during the preliminary survey. For details in this regard, reference may be made to IRC:52 ''Recommendations About the Alignment Survey and Geometric Design ofRill Roads". , .8.2.2. The traverse consists of a series ofstraight lines with their lengths and intermediate angles measured very carefully. In difficult terrain, the alignment may have to be negotiated through a series of short chords, preferably, the traverse should be done with a theodolite with Electronic Distance Measurement (EDM) and all angles measured with double reversal method. Global Positioning System (GPS) is also very-useful and appropriate for preliminary survey. The GPS will give locations in co-ordinates all the necessary points on the traverse. GPS is very fast reasonably accurate for preliminary system and computer friendly for data transfer. Control pillars in cement concrete should be fixed at suitable interval (ranging from 500 m to 2 kms) to have control on accuracy. It also helps in repeating the survey, ifrequiied, within the control pillars.
8.2.3. Distances along the traverse line ~ould be measured with EDM or total station. An accuracy of at least 1 in 10000 should be aimed at in all distance measurement. 8.2.4. No hard and fast rule can be laid down as regards distance between two consecutive transit stations.. In practice, the interval will be dictated by directional changes in the alignment, terrain conditions and visibility. The transit stations should be marked by means of stakes and numbered in sequence. These should be protected and preserved till the final location survey. 8.2.5. Physical features, such as, buildings, monuments, burial grounds, cremation grounds, places 24
IRCSP:l 9-200 1
ofworship, posts, pipelines, existing roads and railway lines, stream/river/canal crossings, cross-drainage structures, etc. that are likely to affect the project proposals should be located by means of offsets measured from the traverse line. Where the survey is for improving or upgrading an existing road, measurements should also be made for existing carriageway, roadway and location and radii ofhorizontal curves. In case ofhighways in rolling and hilly terrain the nature and extent of grades, ridges and valleys and vertical curves should necessarily be covered. The width ofland to be surveyed will depend on the category of road, purpose ofthe project, terrain and otherrelated factors. Generally, the survey should cover the entire right-of-way ofthe road, with adequate allowance for possible shifting ofthe centre line from the traverse line. 8.2.6. Levelling work during a preliminary survey is usually kept to the minimum. Generally, fly levels are taken along the traverse line at 50 metre intervals and at all intermediate breaks in ground. To draw contours ofthe strip ofland surveyed, cross-sections should be taken at suitable intervals, generally 100 to 250 m in plain terrain, upto 50 m in rolling terrain, and upto 20 min hilly terrain. To facilitate the levelling work, bench marks, either temporary or permanent, should be established at intervals of250 to 500 metres. The levels should be connected to GTS datum. 8.2.7. Field notes ofthe survey should be clear and concise, yet comprehensive enough for easy and accurate plotting. 8.2.8. Apart from traverse survey, geQ.eral information about traffic, soil, drainage should be collected while the traverse is being run, as mentioned in para 8.1.2. 8.2.9. Check list on preliminary survey is available inAppendix-4. 8.3.
8.3.1. Plans and longitudinal sections (tied t6 an accurate base line) prepared as a sequel to the preliminary survey are referred to for detailed study to determine the final centre line ofthe road. At critical locations, like, sharp curves, hair-pin bends, bridge crossings, etc., the plan should also show contours at 1-3 metre intervals, particularly for roads in rolling or hilly terrain so as to facilitate the final decision. 8.3.2. Scales for the maps should generally be the same as adopted for the final drawings. The following scales are suggested: (i)
Built-up areas and stretches in hilly terrain-1: 1,000 for horizontal scale and 1: 100 for vertical scale.
Plain and rolling terrain-1 :2,500 for horizontal scale and 1:250 for vertical scale.
8.3.3. For study of difficult locations, such as, steep terrain, hair-pin bends, sharp curves, bridge , crossings, etc. it may be convenient to have plans to a larger scale than recommended above. If necessary these plans may show contours preferably at 2 m interval, though this could be varied to 1.5 m according to site condition.
9. ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT' STUDY AND RESETTLEMENT AND REHABILTATION ACTIONPLAN 9.1.
9.1.1 The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) has become an integral part of highway project preparation work. The main purpose ofElA is to identifY the environmental impact ofthe project proposal and its different alternatives, weigh their significance and severance, propose possible mitigating 25
measures and provide necessary infonnation for taking decision regarding the overall acceptability ofthe project from environmental angle. 9.1.2. The subject is being briefly described in the following paragraphs but in all cases of actual project preparation the provision in the "Guidelines for Environmental Impact Assessment of Highway Projects" (IRC: 104) together with relevant guidelines and instructions issued by the MinistIyofEnvirOnment and Forests shall be followed as guiding principles. 9.1 .3. The EJA comprises main! yof the following four elements: (i)
Preliminary Screening and Environmental Analysis
Compliance of Coastal Regulation Zonal requirements
(iv) Environmental Management Action Plan
In most cases the second element i.e. Environmental Desigfi within its Scope will have a brief socio-economic base-line study, assessment of special requirements of Forests and Coastal Regulatory Zones and preparation of a Resettlement and Preliminary Rehabilitation Action Plan (RAP) may become .necessary. 9.1.4. Interalia the following legislation need due consideration: Environmental (protection) Act, 1986 Wild life (protection) Act 1972 Forest (conservation) Act, 1980 Water (prevention and control of pollution) Act, 1981 (amended 1987) Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act ,1981 (amended 1987) Coastal Zone Regulation
The latest versions/amendments shall be used. 9.1.5. The provisions in the Notification ofthe Government ofIndia in Ministry ofEnvironment and Forest N.O. S.O. 318 (E) published in Gazette ExtraordinaryN.O. 244 dt. 10-4-1997 shall also be kept in view. The projects relating to improvement works including widening and strengthening with marginal land acquisition of roads along the existing alignments irrespective of !he cost component is exempted from obtaining environmental clearance from Ministry ofEnvironment and Forest. 9.1.6. Salient features ofMOEF "Environmental Guidelines for Highway Projects" are covered in Appendix-l 1. 9.2.
9.2.1. A preliminary environmental/screening ofthe highway may be carried out to determine the magnitude of actual and potential impact and ensure that environmental considerations are given adequate weightage in the selection and design ofthe highway improvement/construction proposals. In Appendix-5, a chart for Initial Environment Examination (lEE) and suggested grading and protection measures have been indicated. 9.2.2. Infonnation should be collected on existing environmental conditions and a preliminary evaluation of the alignment selected for improvement/construction in order to detennine the focus of 26
environmental assessments, design and management studies. 9.2.3. Positiv~ and neeative impacts of upgrading the highway or constructing a new highway shall be identified. Cost-effective measures may be proposed to enhance the positive impacts and to avoid or mitigate the effect ofnegative impacts. 9.2.4. Where felt necessary, public consultation with the affected groups or involved NGO' s may be carried out. 9.3. Environmental Design 9.3 .1. From the Environmental analysis all elements with potential for adverse impacts should be identified, for which steps can then be taken to avoid/mitigate through judicious design changes (e.g., shifting the road alignment to save trees on one side ofthe road). Adverse impacts, such as, soil erosion, flooding, loss of vegetation cover, etc. should be identifiedoand appropriate mitigating measures, like, ground cover planting, installation of proper drainage system, etc. incorporated in design to reduce the impact. Cost effective proposals may also be included in the design proposal to suitably upgrade or enhance the environmental quality along the highway or the new alignment in a sustainable manner. Where possible a few stretches along the project road may be selected for provision of facilities for non-motorised transport which may provide an indirect encouragement to enhancement ofenvironmental quality. Environmental Management Action Plan 9.4. 9.4.1. An implementation schedule and supervision programme may be prepared for timely execution of environmental mitigation and design works and all efforts may be made to stick to it. In important cases the programme for monitoring environmental impacts during construction and operation should be developed. For large projects, the requirement for institutional strengthening and training facility for personnel to be deployed on environmental works should be specified. Any further studies of environmental issues, which are required to be undertaken during project implementation should be recommended. 9.5.
Resettlement and Rehabilitation Action Plan (RAP)
9.5.1. Whenever the project will entail acquisition ofland, structures and other assets and cause displacement or loss of assets within the public right-of-way, the project should undertake a socia-economic base-line study and prepare a Re-settlement and Rehabilitation Action Plan (RAP). 9.5.2. Broadly speaking, the RAP has three main objectives: (a)
To assess and bring out the impacts ofland acquisition and assets for the project civil works on the people who own properties in the area to be acquired or live on the land to be acquired and/or derive their income from the land or own enterprises operating on the land to be acquired,
To present the entitlement policy for compensation and assistance to people affected by the project, and
To prepare an action plan for delivery of compensation and assistance outlined in the policy to the persons duly identified as entitled to such assistance.
9.5.3. The present policy ofthe Goverr-ment is that the population adversely affected by the project should receive benefits from it or at the least, they should not be worse off than before because of 27
the project. Since acquisition ofland and other assets may be unavoidable and an integral part ofproject design and implementation, undertaking a social impact assessment and preparing RAP may also be included as a part of project design from the start and undertaken in close co-ordination with environmental analysis and environmental action plan. Also, as far as possibk idvoluntary settlement may be avoided or at least minimised wherever possible, by exploring other alterrlative project designs. 9.5.4. The initial screening of social and environmental impacts should be a part offinal selection of alignment. In this connection the initial Environmental Examination grading suggested in the table in Appendix-5 may be seen. 9.5.5. In cases where displacement, loss of assets or other negative impacts on people are unavoidable, the project should assist the affected persons with means to improve their former living standards, income-earning capacities, production levels or at least maintain the previous standards of living. 9.5.6. Since no civil work can be undertaken on any stretch ofroad before land acquisition and paymentofcompensation as per RAP, it is essential that planning and implementation of civil works may be co-ordinated with RAP. 9.5.7. Preparation ofRAP requires a thorough understanding ofthe local people, and the social, economic and cultural factors influencing their lives. It is essential that detailed base-line studies are conducted with a participatory approach through consultation with potentially affected persons and other stake holders in the area, the local NGO's, municipal authorities, etc. and a mutually satisfactory solution is achieved.
10. FEASIBILITY REPORT 10.1.· A Feasibility Report is prepared after the preliminary survey is completed.. The report is intended to serve as the basis for according Administrative Approval (AA) for the project by the Highway DepartmentlPublic Works Department. When International funding is sought, it fonns the basis for entering into negotiations with the funding agency and concluding an agreement for loan. The Feasibility Report must establish the economic viability and technical soundness ofthe alternative selected. Thus, it must be precedeq by the engineering surveys and investigations of sufficient accuracy and detail as to result in a fairly firm estimation of the cost of the project. It must be based on accurate traffic projections and must contain an economic analysis. 10.2. A full account ofthe socio-economicprofileofthe state and the Road Influence Area must be given in the Feasibility Report. The transport infrastructure ofthe stage must be fully described, giving details ofthe road/road transport sector. The Feasibility Report may include discussion on different alternative alignments, alternative pavement design for deciding the one most sui~ble as final option. Feasibility of stage construction should also be examined in the light ofthe rate ofgrowth oftraffic and other relevant parameters. 10.3. A brief outline of the organisational structure of the Public Works Department must be given, establishing its adequacy in handling the project and giving details of any augmentation support system proposed. 28
10.4. The Report should give a brief description ofthe scope of the project, its need, sources of fimding, budget and plan provision, selection ofro' te alignment, cross-sectional elements, drainage facilities and construction technology. 10.5. The methodology adopted for the various studies must be described. These include traffic surveys: soils; materials and sub-soil investigation; hydrological and drainage studies. 10.6.
The design standards and methodology adopted must be explained.
10.7. The Report must contain a reasonably accurate estimate of costs, giving the basis for adopted rates. Any provision for escalation of costs must be explained. 10.8. The implementation programme involving prequalification, bidding, construction supervision and contract management must be drawn up and presented in the form of bar chart. 10.9. The economic analysis must be based on current costs. The IRe Manual on Economic Analysis of Highway Proiects (Special Publication No.30) gives details of the procedure that may be adopted. Some other models like HDM III or its latest revision developed by the .. World Bank, RTIM III developed by Transport Research Laboratory U.K. after suitable calibration for Indian conditions also can be used if so desired. A sensitivity analysis must be presented for the following cases: (2)
Benefits minus 15 per cent Base costs plus 15 per cent
Base benefits minus 15 per cent and base costs plus 15 per cent Implementation delay:one year
These percentages are generally specified in the range of 10-15 per cent. In addition to catering for the uncertainties in the generated and diverted traffic, a sensitivity analysis
shall be carried out considering the non occurrence ofthe development envisaged and/or the diverted traffic not attracted as per assumption. For cost benefit assessment, the sensitivity analysis shall include:
• • •
Base Case Pessimistic Scenario Optimistic Scenario
10.10. The construction arrangements envisaged must be discussed. The procedure for prequalification ofcontractors and for bidding and supervision arrangements must be discussed. 10.11. In case ofBuild, Operate and Transfer (BOT) Projects, the financial analysis with different financial scenarios must be presented. The financial analysis may include cash flows, minimum construction time and exploring other revenues including the tolls. 10.12. The Feasibility Report must be accompanied by the following drawings: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii)
Locality map Plans showing various alternative alignments considered and the selected alignment Typical cross-sections showing pavement details Drawings for cross-drainage and other structures Roadjunction drawings Strip plan Preliminary land acquisition plans 29
10.13. The Feasibility Study shall have following broad coverage: Volume J-Main Text and Appendices
(i) (ii) (iii) (iv) (v) (vi) (vii) (viii) (ix)
(x) (Xl) (xiI)
Executive summary Regional/State socio-economic profile Socio-economic profile of the project influence area Methodology adopted for the studies Traffic surveys and analysis Engineering survey investigations and analysis Project road description and or improvement proposals Environmental impact assessment Resettlement and rehabilitation action plan Project cost estimates including L.A. cost Economic analysis and evaluation including sensitivity Conclusions and recommendations
V.olume II-Design Report
(i) (n) (iii) (iv)
Project road inventory Engineering survey and investigation data Design standards and specifications. Pavement and bridge design
10.14. A check list for the Feasibility Report is given in Appendix-6. 11. SELECTION OF OPTIMUM ALIGNMENT IN THE DESIGN OFFICE
11.1. Detennination ofthe final centre line of the road in the office is a forerunner to the final location' survey. Ibis involves the following operations: (i)
Making use of the maps from preliminary survey (see para 8.3) showing the longitudinal profile, cross-sections and contours, a few alternative alignments for the fmal centre line of the road are drawn and studied and the best one satisfying the engineering, aesthetic and economic requirements selected. For the selected alignment, a trial gradeline is drawn taking into account the controls which are established by intersections, railway crossings, streams and other drainage requirements. In the case of improvements of an existing road, the existing road levels are also kept in view. For the selected alignment, a study of the horizontal alignment in conjunction with the profile is carried out and adjustments made in both as necessary for achieving proper coordination, Horizontal curves including transitions with adequate provision for visibility are designed and fmal centre line marked on the map. The vertical curves are designed and the profile determined.
11.2. The alignment detennined in the design office shall be cross checked in the field, specially when the data base is not adequately updated. 11.3. Determination ofthe final centre line ofthe road fOlTI1S the appropriate stage for preparing plans and estimates for land acquisition. Land acquisition proceedings involve time and these need not wait till the preparation ofthe detailed project report especially, if administrative approval has already been obtained. 30
12. FINAL LOCATION SURVEY 12.1.
12.1.1. The purpose ofthe final location survey is to layout the centre lines ofthe road in the field based on the alignment selected in the design office and to collect necessary data for the preparation of working drawings. The completeness and accuracy of the project drawings and estimates of quantities depend a great deal on the precision with which this survey is carried out. The accuracy ofthe survey should be test checked by the senior professionals ofthe concerned authority. This will also generate the precise land acquisition requirements. 12.1.2. The two main operations involved in the survey are the staking out ofthe final centre line of the road by means of a continuous survey and detailed levelling. 12.2.
Staking Final Centre Line
12.2.1. The centre line ofthe road, as detennined in the design office, is translated on the ground by means of continuous transit survey and staking of the centre line as the survey proceeds. Double reversal method should be adopted at all honzontal intersection points (H.I.P.) and intennediate points of transit (POT) on long tangents. The H.I.Ps. should be fixed on hubs driven flush with the ground and suitably referenced so that they may be readily located. Usually, these should be serially numbered for easy identification and shall be defmed by coordinates. On long tangents, the intennediate transit points (POTs) should also be fixed on hubs in the case ofnew roads, and by means of spikes or nails driven into the pavement in the case of existing roads with proper referencing. Method ofreferencing H.I.Ps. and POTs is illustrated in Fig.12.1 and is also shown in Plate-l.
REFERENCE PEG (ANGLE IRON IN CONCRETE) ~O-12M
"', !i?-:: •
REFERENCE PES (ANGLE IRON IN ,CONCRETE} -I.P. (Hue IN CONCRETE 1
( . ) REFERENCE PEGS AT HORIZONTAL tNTERSECTIOH POINT l H.I. P. 1
rREFErtENCE PEG tANGLE IRON IN CONCRETE)
:: "'-Po _:
O.T. ,NAIL IN EXIST. PAVEt(E"T' CONCR~TE FOR NEW AUGNIllENT'
'-*'EFEREHCE PEG tAHGLE .IItON IN CONCRETE' , . , REFERENCE PEOS AT POINT TlltA"SIT-, ~.o.T.l
Fig. 12.1. Sketches explaining the method of referencing horizontal intersection point (HJ.P.) and point oftransit (p.O.T.)
12.2.2. The reference points should be so located that these will not be disturbed during construction. Description and location by coordinate ofthe reference points should be noted for reproduction on the final plan drawings. 12.2.3. All the curve points, namely the beginning of spiral transition curve (BS), beginning of circular curve (BC), end of circular curve (BC) and the end of spiral transition (ES) should be fixed and referenced in the same manner as for POTs described earlier. (For the procedure of setting curves, reference may be made to IRC:38 "Design 'fables ofHorizontal Curves for Highways"). 12.2.4. The final centre line ofthe road should be suitably staked. Stakes should be fixed at 50 metre intervals in plain and rolling terrain, and 20 metre intervals in hilly terrain. The stakes are intended only for short period for taking levels of the ground along the centre line and cross-section with reference thereto. In the case of existing roads, paint marks with button headed steer nails may be used instead of stakes. 12.2.5. Distance measurements along the final centre line should be continuous following the horizontal curves where these occur. 12.2.6. The traverse in case of road alignment would be open and should be controlled by establishing control points to be established by sophisticated G.P.S. or by astronomical observations or by running cut-offlines between certain intermediate stations. 12.2.7. At road crossings, the angles which the intersecting roads make with the final centre line should be measured. Similar measurement should be made at railway level crossings. 12.3.
12.3.1. To establish firm vertical control for location, design and construction, permanent bench marks should be established at intervals of 2 km and temporary bench marks has intervals of250 metres (exceptionally 500 metres), and at or near all drainage or underpass structures. Reference points for POTs and HIPs, as shown in Fig. 12.1 could also be used as bench marks. It is particularly important that a single datum, preferable GTS datum, should be used to tie up all the levels. For bench mark levelling, check levels should be run over the entire line back to the first bench mark. 12.4.
Longitudinal Sections and Cross-Sections
12.4.1. Levels along the final centre line should be taken at all staked stations (Refer sub-para 11.4.2) and at all breaks in the ground. 12.4.2. Cross-sections should be generally taken at 50-100 metre intervals to plain terrain and 50-75 metre in rolling terrain depending on the nature of work. Preferred distance for existing roads are built-up situations is 50 m. The interval should be sti1lless in hilly terrain, about 20 m. In addition, crosssections should be taken at points of beginning and end ofspiral transition curves, at the beginning, middle and end ofcircular curves, and at other critical locations. All cross-sections should be with reference to the final centre line, extended normally up to the,right-of-way limit, and show levels at every 2-5 metres intervals and at all breaks in the profile. 12.4.3. Centre line profile should normally be continued at least 200 metres beyond the limits of the project. This is intended to ensure proper cOnrlecting grades at both ends. With the same objective, profile along all intersecting roads should be measured upto a distance of about 150 metres. Further, at railway level crossings, the level of the top of the rails, and in the case of subways, the level ofthe roof 32
should be noted. On existing roads, levels should be taken at all points of intersection in order to help the fixation ofprofile. 12.5.
Proper Protection of Points of Reference
'125.1. The final location survey is considered complete when all the necessary information is available and ready for the designer to be able to plot the final road profile and prepare the project drawings. Among other things, field notes should give a clear description and location of all the bench marks and reference points. The information should be transferred to the plan drawings, so that at the time ofconstruction the centre line and the bench marks could be located in the field without any di~culty. 12.5.2. At the time of ~x..:cution, all construction lines will be set out and checked with reference to the final centre line established during the final location survey. It is important, therefore, that not only all the points referencing the centre line should be protected and preserved but these are so fixed at site that there is little possibility oftheir being disturbed or removed till the construction is completed. 12.5.3. A checklist indicating the major operations involved in the different types of survey and investigation for a road project is given in Appendix-4. 13. SOIL AND MATERIALS SURVEYS 13.1.
13.1.1. Investigations for soil and other materials required for construction are carried out in respect ofthe likely sources and the availability and suitability ofmaterials. Some other investigations, for instance in respect oflandslide prone locations may also be conducted at this stage. 13.1.2. In particular soil and materials surveys are required: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv)
(v) (vi) (vii)
to determine the nature and physical characteristics of soil and soil profile for design of embankment and pavement to determine the salt content in soil in areas known to have problems or where the composition of the design crust requires such testing to determine the proper methode s) of handling soils to classify the earthwork involved into various categories such as rock excavation, earthwork in hard soil etc. to gather general information regarding sub-soil water level and flooding; and to locate sources for aggregates required for pavement and structures and to ascertain their availability and suitability for use. locate source of good quality water suitable for use in different items and work particularly the current work.
Study of Available Information
13.2.1. The soil and materials location surveys should include study of all available information such as geological maps, data published by the various authorities regarding location ofconstruction materials and the information available with ground water authorities regarding depth of water table. Soil maps prepared by the local agricultural department and records of existing highways may also provide useful information. A study of these data, if available, will be of great help in the planning and conduct of further surveys and investigations. This information should be perused in conjunction with general information gathered during the preliminary survey (see para 8.1.2). 13.2.2. After studying tlie available information, detailed programme of survey can be drawn up. Points needing attention during detailed soil survey are highlighted further on. 33
IRCSP: 19-200 1
13.3. Soil Investigations for Low Embankments 13.3.1. The first operation in the detailed soil survey is to demarcate the possible borrow areas. While demarcating borrow areas within the road land, the directions contained in IRC: 10 "Recommended Practice for Borrowpits for Road Embankment Constructed by Manual Operation" should be kept in view. The extent of borrow areas should be commensurate with the volume of work involved in the embankment. 13.3.2. The general character of material excavated from test pits should be recorded and tests conducted on it in the laboratory for properties mentioned further on. Where the type on material varies in a single pit,the tests should be conducted on each type of soil separately and the horizon of occurrence noted. Similar tests should be carried out on material from cuts for ascertainirJg the suitability ofits use in the embankment. (i) (ii)
Gradation test (IS:2720 Part IV) Liquid limit and Plastic limit (lS:2720 Part V) Density and optimum moisture content (IS:2720 Part VII or Part VIII as relevant) Deleterious constituents (only in salt infested areas or where presence of salt is suspected) 2720 Part XXVII)
However, in case ofhighly plastic poorly draining and unstable soils, some additional soil tests, (e.g. shrinkage limit test) may also need to be performed before accepting the same either for foundation or borrow. 13.3.4. The results ofthe laboratory investigations should be summarised in a convenient form for which a proforma is suggested in Table 1. Usually this information should be enclosed in full with the project report. Based on results ofthe tests, sand content, and classification ofthe soil vide IS system, (as discussed in paras 3.10 to 3.13 ofIRC:36) should also be determined. The final selection of the borrow areas, whether for the body ofthe embankment or the sub grade could then be made in accordance with the norms recommended in IRC:36 "Recommended Practice for the Construction of Earth Embankments for Road Surface". Great caution should be exercised to ensure and mark, as far as possible, homogenous soils only for this purpose. Heterogeneous or variable soils should be avoided. In making the selection it should pe ensured that the best available homogeneous, soil is reserved for use in the subgrade (i.e., top 500 rpm portion of the embankment). After completing the analysis ofthe results, borrow area charts similar to the sample showl). in Fig.13.1 should be prepared. Table 1. Suggested Proforma for Presenting Laboratory Investigation Data of Soil for Embankment Construction Name of the Laboratoryllnstitute: ....................... . Name of the Technician: .... .. ... . ......... . Sand Type Sieve analysis Percent passing Date! wcation (percent) of soil 425 75 4-7mm 2mm content sieve sieve micron nucron sieve (Col. 4) - (Col. 7) 6 7 8 1 2 4 3 5
Atterberg limits (per cent) P.L. P.I
Density Test Max. dry OMCpercent Density glcc (NormaV HeavJ" Compaction) 14 13
Deleterious Remark Constituents
If desired, the classification could alternatively be done according to the IS system of classification. See paras 3.10 to 3.13 ofIRC:36 Recommended Practice for the Construction of Embankment of Road Works in this Regard. Only in salt infested areas the presence of salt is suspected. 34
LINEAR. CI1ART NOTTbSCALE
KM • KM 81.0 • 81.2 81.2.· 81.4 81.4.· 81.6 • 81.8 • 82.0 • 82.2 • 82.4 • 82.6 • 82.8 •
I '82.2 I I I
i 81 .8
i81 .4 I
BORROW PITS SOIL TO BE RESERVED FOR TOP 500
SOIL SUITABLE FOR BODY OF EMBANKMENT SOIL CONSIDERED UNFIT FOR EMBANKMENT CONSTRUCTION
THE QUANTITIES GIVEN IN THE TABLE ARE APPROXIMATE.
.... Q. W
STATE: ROUTE No.: SECTION:
BORROW AREA CHART KM 81.0 • 83.0
mm OF SUBGRADE AND EARTHEN SHOULDERS
FROM ADJOINING BORROW AREAS
81.6 81.8 82.0 82.2 82.4 82.6 82.8 83.0
E~~~~T:~!~:_ .• SOURCE OF PROCU~EMENT OF EARTH FOR FOR .,Uts~ FOR BODY SUBGRADE & SHOULDER FROM BODY OF EMBANKMENT FROM OF EM BEN· GRADE BORROW AREAS. REACHES OF CUTTING BORROW AREAS . REACHES OF CUTTING KMENT LOCATION QUANTITY LOCATION QUANTITY LOCATION QUANTITY LOCATION QUANTITY KM' CUM CUM KM CUM KM CUM CUM CUM KM 81.3 .1000 . 6000 1000 @ 6000 400 1000 81.3 400 81.3 1000 2000 400 81.5 400 81.5 2000 400 81.7 400 800 4000 @ 400 400 4000 81.8 @ 1000 1000 5000 @ @ 5000 @ 900 900 8000 @ 5000 500 500 4000 82.2 @ 4000 100 2000 82,9 100 @ 2000 (Ql 100 2500 100 @ 2000
~.... e ..J
Fig. 13.1. Borrow Area Chart
Special Investigations for High Embankments
13.4.1. The basic objective ofinvestigations in such cases is to obtain engineering data for soil and rock necessary for a quantitative design of embankment at the chosen sites. Generally for checking stability against slip failures, the basic properties to be investigated are shear parameters, unit weight and moistures conditions. For safety against excessive settlement, consolidation properties are important. For investigations in such cases, services of specialists may often be needed. Reference may also be made to IRe publication "Guidelines for the Design ofHigh Embankments" (IRC:7 S). In addition to the above, some special considerations required ,have been enumerated in Appendix-l to this manual for locating roads in hilly areas, desert areas, water-logged areas and areas subject to soil erosion. These points may be kept in view. IRC Special Report No. 13 State of Art : High Embankment on Soft Ground Part-A- Stage Construction Contains recommendations for foundations for high Embankments. Special Report 14 entitled' State ofthe Art High Embankments on Soft Ground- Part-B- Ground Improvement. The points mentioned in them would be ofhelp in preparation ofprojects in similar situations. Software RED Version 1.0 (available with the IRC) for design ofhigh embankment is recommended for analysis. Slope stability analysis for seismic forces and reinforcement force can be handled by this software. This software is with Graphic Capability List oflaboratory tests to be conducted for highway embankment is placed as Appendix-l o. Ministry of Road Transport and Highways circular No. NH-VI-50(21 )/79 dated 25th January, 1980 regarding "Investigation and Design for High Embankments at Approaches to Bridges and Overbridges on National Highways and other Centrally Financed Roads" has been printed with 17 Annexures in Addendum to Ministry's Technical Circulars and Directives on National Highways and Centrally Sponsored Road and Bridge Projects published by IRC. This circular is very exhaustive and covers basic steps and procedures for soil investigation, typical worked out example for stability analysis of embankments, filter design, settlement analysis, etc. 13.5.
Soil Investigations for Cut Sections
13.5.1. In the same manner as described in para 13.4 for embankment material, soil in cut sections along the centre line ofthe road at an elevation corresponding to the design subgrade level should be tested for the following general properties: (i)
Field density and moisture content
13.5.2. In the case of rock cuts where necessary, trial pits or boreholes should be made to the foundation level, to make realistic estimates of the type of cutting involved. The interval oftrial bores may be 30 to 50 metres or as otherwise decided by the Engineer-in-charge depending on specific requirements. 13.6.
Special Investigations in Landslide-Prone Areas
13.6.1. Information collected during preliminary survey (see para 8.1.2) would normally identify the landslide prone areas along the alignment and every effort would have been made to avoid these while 36
fixing the centre line ofroad. However, in case where the same is not feasible, further investigations would be required to study the extent ofthe problem and plan appropriate remedial measures. For this purpose, services of geologist or soil specialist may often be needed. 13.6.2. Depending on the geological configuration and drainage of the area, slides may take the form ofrock or soil fall (i.e., movement of detached rock fragments at steep angles), rock flows (i.e., soil or rock mass suddenly losing strength and flowing like a liquid), or rotational slides (i.e., slips triggered under-cutting, erosion, extemalload on upper parts of the slope, or water seepage). Investigation in each case will, therefore, depend on site conditions and the type of slide expected. These will involve collection of information about the existing slides, sources of water in the area, substrata profile, and other pertinent data which may facilitate inferences being drawn as to the cause, mechanism, and potentiality of slides. For detailed guidance in regard to such investigation, reference might be made to standard publications on the subject and IRC Special Report No.IS - "State ofthe Art: Landslide Correction Techniques". 13.7.
Detailed Investigation for Flexible Pavement Design
13.7.1. New flexible pavements are to be designed in accordance with IRC:37 "Guidelines for the Design ofFlexible Pavements". General principles laid down in this pUblication for moulding and testing soil specimens under different situations to be able to use the CBR method of design should be kept in View.
13.7.2. For new roads, the soil data already collected in earlier phases ofthe survey should be studied in detail for ascertaining the variability/homogeneity ofthe soil profile, and planning further investigations. Where pavement design relates to widening/strengthening of an existing road, the road should be divided into more or less identical sections on the basis of actual performance and pavement composition, as the basis for further testing. 13.7.3. For pavement design, apart from the general soil tests referred to earlier, CBR test should be conducted for soaked, unsoaked or both these conditions depending on the design requirements spelt out in IRC:3 7. Frequency ofCBR testing may be decided based on the soil classification tests conducted at close interval of 500 m-I,OOO m. Overall objective should be to get strength results for all changes in soil type or each demarcated section ofsimilar performance. 13.7.4. A suggested proforma for presenting soil investigation data pertinentto flexible pavement design is given in Table 13.2. \ 13.7.5. In case of overlay design, IRC Publication "Tentative Guidelines for Strengthening of Flexible Pavements Using Benkelman Beam Deflection Technique-IRC:8I" may be followed. A suggested profonna for Pavement Deflection Data Using Benkelman Beam attached in this chapter may be found useful. 13.8.
Detailed Investigation for Rigid Pavement Design
13.8.1. For design of cement concrete pavement in the case of new construction, 'K' value tests 37
Table 13.2: SUGGESTED PROFORMA FOR RECORDING SOIL INVESTIGATION DATA FOR FLEXIBLE PAVEMENT DESIGN
Average Annual Rainfall : State: Route: Section Date of Sampling
'P N o o
Location Nature of Sieve analysis:% by weight passing Sand Km. Cut/filii soil (visual 4.75 mm 4.25 mm 75 micron content existing identification) sieve sieve sieve (Co1.5 road Col.7)
Atterberg Limits •• CBR of •• CBR of Depth of water Remarks Max. dT) OMC Field dry density Liquid Plastic Plasticity density % at subgrade level remoulded soil remoulded soil table below Limit (LL) Limit (PL) Index (PI) gmlcc. (for existing samples tested samples soaked sub-grade % % under worst roads on new without soaking in water for condition (m) roads in cutting) 4daE
"The moulding density (whether Proctor density or field density). and the testing condition of samples (soaked or unsoaked) will depend on the nature of circumstances and design requirements. In some cases only unsoaked eBR values may be needed in others only soaked values. and in some. both unsoaked and soaked values. Both columns 15 & 16 do not therefore have to be filled in each and every case. For further guidance in this regard. references should be made to IRC:3 7-200 I "Guidelines for the Design of Flexible Pavements".
Table 13.3: SUGGESTED PROFORMA FOR RECORD OF TEST VALUE OF AGGREGATES LIKE STONE METAL, ETC.
State: District : Date of Testing: Location and name Type 'of Rock (General group, of quany if any (correlated with c1assi fication index map) or trade name)
Specimen· Los-Angeles·· No. Abrasion Value (IS:2386Part IV) 3
Aggregate Impact Value·· Water Dry test West test Absorptions (IS:2386 (IS: 5640 (IS:2386 Part IV) Part
Flakiness Index···(IS:2386 Part I Normal size Nominal size 40mm 20mm
Stripping Value····· (IS:6241)
Remarks regarding performance of the aggregate wherever a systematic evaluation has been made
Addl. Remarks like old/new quany, approximate quantity available, existing access to quany etc.
For every quany source, at least 3 specimens should be tested for each type of material met with. •• For hard aggregates, like, stone metal, anyone of the two tests given in colums 4 & 5 may be conducted. Wet test in column 6 has to be done in the case of soft aggregates like laterite, kankar, brick metal etc. ••• Not required to be carried out for soft aggregates, like, laterite, kankar, brick metal, etc. •••• To be performed only when the material is to be used in bituminous constructions.
should be carried out with 75 cm diameter plate at the rate of generally, one test per km per lane unless foundation changes warrant additional tests. Further guidance in this respect can be had from IRC:58 "Guidelines for the Design ofRigid Pavements for Highways". 13.8.2. For investigations in connection with the strengthening ofexisting rigid pavements, reference may be made to the IRC Special Publication 17 "Recommendations About Overlays on Cement Concrete Pavements". 13.9.
Naturally Occurring Aggregates for Pavement Courses
13.9.1. The survey for naturally occurring materials, like, stone aggregates, murum, gravel, kankar, etc., to be employed in construction should embrace the identification of suitable quarries for these, the amount of material likely to be available from each, and the determination of physical and strength characteristics, ofthe materials. The tests to be conducted and sample proforma for presenting the test results are shown in Tables 13.3 and 13.4, Table 13.3 is for aggregates while Table 13.4 is for naturally occurring materials, like, murum, gravel and soil-gravel/murum mixtures. For every quarry source, at least three specimens should be tested for each type of material met with. Samples for the tests should be representative and collected in accordance with the procedure setforth in IS:2430. Quarry charts showing the location ofquarries and the average lead of materials should also be prepared. New road construction as well as essential maintenance and rehabilitation of existing network use substantial quantity ofmaterial resources, like, earth, stone metal, chips, binder, etc. On one hand material extraction, processing and production invariably have adverse impact on environmental and also leads to progressive depletion of existing resources. On the other hand there are many heavy industries, like, steel plants, power plants, etc. which produce a large quantity ofwaste materials, like, slag, fly ash, bottom ash, etc. which pile up in the absence of satisfactory disposal constituting an environmental hazard. Road research has shown that these waste materials, like, slag, fly ash, etc. can be gainfully utilised in various ways in construction of embankment, pavement, etc. which will not only be economical in certain areas but also will solve the disposal problem. Keeping in mind the environmental need and over-all economy in use ofmaterial resources, project preparation should aim at maximum utilisation ofthese substitute materials in the construction process, 13.10. Manufactured Aggregates (Brick Aggregate) 13.10.1. Where the use of brick aggregates is envisaged, a survey should be made to identifY the location and average lead from the work site of existing kilns capable of producing overburnt brickslbrick bats. Where suitable kilns are not in operation, the survey should indicate the possibility of opening new kilns for the purpose. 13.11. Manufactured Items 13.11.1. For manufactured items, like, lime, cement, steel and bitumen, information about their sources of supply and the distance of the nearest rail-head from the location of works should be gathered during the survey. For lime, in addition to source and lead, the information should cover its purity. 13.12.
Water for Construction Purposes
13.12.1. Information should also be gathered about the availability of water near the work site and its suitability in conformity with IS:456 for construction purposes. 40
Table 13.4: SUGGESTED PROFORMA FOR RECORD OF TEST VALUES OF NATURALLY OCCURRING SOIL-GRAVEL/MOORUM MIXTURES
State: .District: Date of Testing: Location and name of quarry if any (correlated with index map)
General Specimen Gradation:Per cent by weight passing the Sieve (IS:2720-Part IV) Atterberg limits (lS:2720-Part V Proctor Test (IS:2720-Part VII) C'BR value··· Addl. Remarks, like, old! description No. new quarry, approximate 80 2.36 40 75 600 4.75 20 10 OMC' Liquid Plastic Plasticity Density of the quantity available. existing Limit (LL) Limit (PL) Index (PI material access to quarry, etc. mm mm mm micron micron mm mm mm % %
*.. Tested in accordance with IS: 2720 Part XVI on samples prepared at Proctor density, OMC and soaked in water for 4 days
sa o rJj
PAVEMENT DEFLECtION DATA USING BANKELMAN DEAM (AS per IRC:81-1997)
Name of Road:
Date and Time of Observation Climate conditions (hotlhumidlcold)
Air temprature, "C
No. of traffic lanes:
Annual rainfall, mm
Whether temperature currection : YesINo is in the applied whether curr:ction for seasonal variation is to be applied : YeslNo SI. No. I
Location of test points and identi fication oflane
Pavement temprature C 3
Type of Soil and Pt
Dial range reading Initial
14. ROAD INVENTORY AND CONDITION SURVEY
i 4.1. Many highway projects involve improvement to an existing road (strengthening/widening) or construction ofnew facilities (bypasses) which are an improvement in traffic conditions over the existing facility. In all these cases, the scope ofthe improvement measures and economic justification for them depends upon the condition ofthe existing road. It therefore, becomes necessary to prepare a road inventory and carryout condition survey. Suggested formats are indicated in the Appendix-7. 14.2. In some Highway DepartmentiPublic Works Department, systematic data on roads and bridges is maintained and updated periodically. They are known as Road Registers and Bridge Registers. For national highways.and many state highways there is an existing system of inventorisation. Wherever available these data may be consulted and made use of. 14.3. The best way of preservation of collected data is to keep them in a computer based road data bank. With the proliferation and increasing uSe ofcomputers ofdifferent denominations in engineering works, this may soon become the usual method. With this expectation in view in Appendix-8 is placed a brief note on introduction of computer based road data bank. 14.4. In case the above sources are not available, a fresh road inventory shall have to be prepared. The scope ofthe inventory would depend upon the nature ofthe improvements proposed. Condition surveyor riding quality will, however be required even ifinventory data is available. For economic analysis, the majorroad characteristics needed are: (i)
For pavement strengthening projects, information on the subgrade soil strength and pavement thickness and composition are needed. Deflection characteristics (by Benkelman Beam or other Instruments) are also required. The riding quality is measured by a bump integrator orroughometer. The pavement width is easily measured. The vertical profile and horizontal curvature are measured quickly by car-mounted instruments or can be evaluated from topographical survey. In case the roughometers are not available, the riding quality or the roughness in term ofIntemational Roughness Index (IRI) can be reasonably estimated by subjective evaluation base on World Bank Technical Paper Number 46. The guidelines for such roughness assessment are given in Figs. 14.1 and 14.2. For correlation with 5th Wheel Bump Integrator values the following relation as given in HDM-ill Volume-l may be used.
BI = 630 (IRI) 1.12
BI = Roughness in mmIkm IRI = Roughness in mIkm
ROUGHNESS (I11Ilan IRI)
Ride comfortable over 120 kmIh. Undulation barely perceptible at 80 kmIh in range 1.3 to 1.8. No depressions, potholes or corrugations are noticeable; depressions < 2 mml3 m. Typical high quality asphalt 1.4 to 2.3, high quality surface treatment 2.0 to 3.0.
Ride comfortable up to 100-120 km/h. At 80 km/h, moderately perceptible movements or large undulations may be felt. Defective surface: occasional depressions, patches or potholes (e.g. 5-15 mml3 m or 10-20 mm/5 m with frequency 2-1 per 50 m) or many shallow potholes (e.g. on surface treatment showing extensive ravelling). Surface without defects: moderate colTIlgations or large undulations.
Ride comfortable up to 70-90 km/h, strongly perceptible movements and swaying. Usually associated with defects: frequent moderate and uneven depressions or patches (e.g. 15-20 mml3 on or 20-40 mml5 m with frequency 5-3 per 50 m), or occasional potholes (e.g. 3-1 per 50 m). Surface without defects: strong undulations or colTIlgations.
8 Ride comfortable up to 50-60 km/h, frequent sharp movements or swaying. Associated with severe defects: frequent deep and uneven depressions and patches (e.g. 20-40 mml3 m or 40-80 mml5 m with frequency 5-3 per 50 m), or frequent potholes (e.g. 4-6 per 50 m). 10
Necessary to reduce velocity below 50 km/h. Many deep depressions, potholes and severe disintegration (e.g. 40-80 mm deep with frequency 8-16 per 50 m).
Fig. 14.1. Road Roughness Estimation Scale for Paved Roads with Asphaltic Concrete or Surface Treatment (Chipseal) Surfacings
Recently bladed surface offine gravel, or soil surface with excellent longitudinal and transverse profile (usually found only in short lengths).
Ride comfortable up to 80-100 krnIh, aware of gentle undulations or swaying. Negligible depressions (e.g < 5 mml3 m) and no potholes.
Ride comfortable up to 70-80 krnIh but aware ofsharp movements and some wheel bounce. Frequent shallow-moderate depressions or shallow potholes (e.g. 6-30 mmJ3 m with frequency 5-10 per, 50m). Moderate corrugations (e.g. 6-20mmlO.7-1.5 m).
Ride comfortable at 50 kmIh (or 40-70 krnIh on specific sections). Frequent moderate transverse depressions (e.g. 20-40 mmJ3-5 m at frequency 10-20 per 50 m) or occatipnal deep depressions or potholes (e.g. 40-80 mmJ3 m with frequency less than 5 per 50 m). Strong corrugations (e.g. > 20 mm10. 7-1.5 m).
Ride comfortable at 30-40·· kmIh. Frequent deep transverse depressions' and/or potholes (e.g. 40-80 mm11-5 mat freq.- 510 per 50 m); or occational very deep depressions (e.g. 80 mmJ 1-5 m with frequency less than 5 per 50 m) with other shallow depressions. Not possible to avoid all the depressions except the worst.
Ride comfortable 20-30 kmIh. Speeds higher that 40-50 krnIh would cause extrenie discomfort, and possible damage to the car. On a good general profile: frequent deep depressions and/or potholes (e.g. 40-80 mm11-5 m at frequency 10-15 per 50 m) , and occasional very deep depressions (e.g. > 80mmJO.6-2 m). 9n a poor general profile: frequent llJ,oderate defects and depressions (e.g. poor earth surface).
Fig. 14.2. Road Roughness Estimation Scale for Unpaved Roads with Gravel or Earth Surface 45
15. DRAINAGE STUDIES 15.1.
15.1.1. Drainage ofhighway refers to the satisfactory disposal of smplus water within the highway limits. The water involved may be precipitation falling on the road, surface runoff form the adjacent land, seepage water moving through sub-terranean channels, or moisture rising by capillary action. Adequate information about drainage patterns is necessary to devise an effective drainage system, which brings into focus ~e need for requisite studies and investigations. 15.1.2. Drainage studies have the following principal objectives: (i)
fixing the grade line of the road
design of pavement, and
design of the surface/sub-surface drainage system
15.1.3. Main components of the drainage investigation are determination of HFL and ponded water level, depth of water table, range oftidallevels and amount of surface runoff. Besides this, for cut sections in rolling and hilly areas, it would be necessary to carry out special investigations for sub-terranean flows and seepage of irrigation water from fields situated above the road. 15.1.4. Extent of studies and the data to be collected will depend on the type and scope ofthe project. Usually good deal ofinformation could be collected through site inspection, simple measurements and local enquiry. Most appropriate time for such enquiries is during the stage ofpreliminary survey (see section 8) so that the information gathered can be ofuse in fixing the alignment and fmalising the broad strategy for improving the drainage. Detailed investigations could continue till the final location survey when any adjustment in the light offurther data could still be made before the project in finally ready. In the case of cut sections, investigations for seepage and sub-terranean flows may generally have to be done again at the stage of formation cut when new features may come to light warranting modifications in design or the need for special measures. 15.2.
High Flood Level
15.2 .1. HFL governs the grade line of a road and its reasonably precise estimation is particularly important: The design HFL should be based on a return period depending upon the importance of the structure. Information in this regard can normally be had from the irrigation department who maintain and analyse such data. Inspection and local enquiry can often provide very useful information, such as marks left on trees or structures indicating the maximum flood level. HFLs so determined should also be compared with those for the adjoining sections ofthe road or nearby railway/irrigation embankments to correct any mistake. 15.2.2. Construction of a highway embankment may sometime block the natural drainage paths a...d cause a heading up on-the water on upstream side. In finalising the HFL, due allowance for the possible afflux in such circumstances must be made. Adequate number of openings s,hall be provided. 15.3.
Depth of Water-Table
15.3 .1. Knowledge of the high water-table (for various return periods) is necessary for fixing the subgrade level deciding the thickness ofpavement, and taking other design measures such as provision of capillary cut-offs or interceptor drains. Depth of water-table may be measured at open wells along the alignment or at holes specially bored for the purpose. Usually observations should be taken at intervals of one kilometre or less, preferably at the time ofwithdrawal of the monsoon, when the water -table is likely 46
to be the highest. Ifthere is any evidence of spring flow in the test holes, this should be carefully recorded. The depth of water-table should be measured with reference to acommon datum.
15.3.2. Besides high water-table it may be helpful to know the fluctuations in water-table. For this prnP